Political systems in #sociology: We study four types of legal authority: 1) #Totalitarianism: the #government regulates every facet of people’s daily lives. Schools, the media and other public institutions only reflect the official view of the Goverment and there is heavy censorship. North Korea, China and Nazi Germany are examples. 2) #Authoritarianism: The state has absolute power and cannot be removed easily. The law is highly conservative with strict sentences for crime and heavy fines for transgressions such as littering and smoking. There are heavy restrictions on human rights, such as freedom of religion, dress, and sexuality. The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, and the military factions in Congo are typical examples. 3) #Monarchy: A system run by a single family from one generation to the next and legitimated by tradition. Many monarchies today are largely symbolic and operate alongside a democratic system. This includes the UK, Sweden, Spain and Denmark. 4) #Democracy: Government is elected by the public and #authority is overseen by the #law. As with the other three types there are different variations. Scandinavian democracies support a robust social welfare system through heavy taxes. The state intervenes in public life by ensuring a relatively higher redistribution of wealth. Liberal democracies such as in the USA and Australia are governed by principles of a free market. The government is less likely to restrict economic competition between businesses, on public goods and infrastructure. #SocialWelfare has less scope to address social inequality. #politics #socialscience #economy #power #education #society #socialstudies #socialinequality #visualsociology
#SocialPolicy makers need ongoing #research into the social behaviour of #crowds. This is partly about planning, such as management of landscapes, improving infrastructure, decreasing traffic congestion and so on. This is also because local #communities need to improve #SocialService delivery. #Cities often have big influxes of people flowing through daily, presenting cultural challenges, increasing demand for #EmergencyResponse, or requiring information. The #Government also sees a need to increase social control in busy areas. This is why many places have laws about what constitutes loitering, often unfairly targeting #youth or applying #stereotypes of #minorities. #SocialScience can help by providing social insight on how different crowds behave and advising how to improve services so that #LocalCouncil, #SocialPolicy and #LawEnforcement aren’t marginalising vulnerable groups. #sociology #psychology #law #police #community #communitywork #socialwork #culture #society #socialresearch #Melbourne #Australia (at Lonsdale Street)
Mali: No Quick Fixes for a Complex Crisis | allAfrica
By Gilles Yabi
The Economic Community of West African States (Ecowas) has agreed on a revised concept of operations for the deployment of an international military force of 3,300 soldiers to help the Malian state wrest control of the northern part of the country from Islamist fighters.
This step, taken on November 11 following a collective effort by regional and international partners, is welcome. But military intervention alone cannot solve the country’s deep crisis.
The situation in Mali is desperately fractious. A military coup toppled the government in March, while separatists and al-Qaeda-linked fundamentalists took over the northern half of the country. Mali is now divided geographically, politically, militarily and religiously.
- Reblogged from crisisgroup
While I do not fully agree with the comment being made here, this critique of government and its supposed treatment of “the poor” and “freedom” is great to unpack under political and visual sociology. Who are “the poor” represented in this picture? What “freedom” is being referenced? What’s the link between poverty and freedom and the role of government in-between the two? I love this street art for the many conversations it opens up.
Source: The Real Art of Street Art.
- Source: zeezeescorner
A more ironic or parody government, a logocracy is a government ruling through words. Described in Washington Irving’s 1807 work, Salmagundi, a logocracy is a government that uses tricky wording to control its people. The Soviet Union has been accused of being a logocracy, citing that its language was a “”stereotyped jargon consisting of formulas and empty slogans, whose purpose was to prevent people from thinking outside the boundaries of collective thought”. George Orwell’s 1984 is a good example of a logocracy, and used the Soviet Union’s “Neo-language” as the basis for its Newspeak.
(via Listverse 10 Lesser Known or Used Forms of Government)
- Source: zeezeescorner
The Chinese state owned mining company MCC have built a camp at Mes Ainak, 35km south of Kabul, while archeologists are racing to excavate a series of ancient Buddhist monasteries before the bulldozers roll in. The Afghan government is desperate for the copper royalites, once mining starts, but officials familiar with the deal said the Chinise, having secured the rights to the deposit, appear to be in no hurry to start exploiting it. They are supposed to build a railway and a power station, but have not started either.
- Reblogged from eighteenchains